July 30, 2012

Testing URLs in Django (like Rails route testing)

Filed under: General Information — Ryan Wilcox @ 9:10 pm

I’m doing more Django work and find myself contrasting how Rails does things and how things are done in Django.

Routing is one of those things.

Both Django and Rails want you to use their systems to dynamically create URLs to other places on the site, instead of hard-coding the path in the href part of the a tag. This makes life easier both now and in the future.

In Django routes are configured manually through matching regular expressions to view functions. In Rails routing happens automatically (by convention) by a domain specific language and suffixing and prefixing various parts of the object and call graph together.

Rails has this interesting feature called route testing. The idea being that you’re testing the rest of your application, you should make sure that Rails is handling your URL paths the way you expect them to.

Django doesn’t have a testing best practice for this, and this article attempts to create one.

First, let’s see what URL paths we have defined

The first time I played with Django I was confused. In Rails I’m used to running rake routes and getting a list of my routes and the URL paths they might match. I couldn’t find such a tool for Django at the time.

Now the Django community has the django-extensions app. Django-Extensions adds new commands to manage.py, one of which is show_urls.

Let’s see part of show_urls in action, for a simple Django app:


$ python manage.py show_urls

/admin/logout/ django.contrib.admin.sites.logout logout
/blogs home.views.blog_list home.views.blog_list
/blogs/<slug>/ home.views.blogs_show home.views.blogs_show

I’m only showing you the most interesting parts of show_urls, but yes I have the Django admin turned on and I have a blog app.

Next, let’s test against those URLs

The slightly annoying thing about Django is that since you’re building up your URLs by configuring regular expressions (which, by the way, are order specific as Django goes with the first expression found)… the match is dependent on the data fed into the path.

In our case we have a /blogs/SLUG route. But perhaps your regular expression forgets something (like perhaps it doesn’t handle URL escaped text, which your slug might be made up of). /blog/today+was+a+good+day should match the home.views.blogs_show route just the same as /blog/todaywasa

This seems like the thing automated testing was made for – making sure that a simple test URL path goes to the view we want, and testing a more complicated match, and testing that Django doesn’t accidentally pick the “wrong” view because us failable humans screwed up some regex or placement.

So, you want me to make a ton more client requests?!!!

We want to do this quickly – we don’t want to build up huge test cases to test obscure URL path names. Thankfully Django provides the tools we need to test our paths:

from django.core.urlresolvers import reverse, resolve

So, no – “just add URL related tests to your existing tests” is not the best answer here

Requirements for URL testing in Django

Let’s think about how we want to test URLs and their patterns:

  1. We want to have a hard coded URL path: as if a browser or a user had typed it in
  2. We, as humans, know which URL pattern name we expect that to match to
  3. We know what (keyword) arguments should be extracted from the URL string
  4. It has to be super fast – ideally without having to instantiate test data or make a single request to the Django application server.

We also know we want to test this backwards and forewards: first taking the URL path and seeing if we get our URL pattern name out, then trying to construct our URL (with Django’s automatic URL creation tools) and seeing if we get our hard coded URL path out again.

Defining an API

Let’s imagine for a minute and create a test:


class TestURLs(TestCase):
    def test_blog_routes(self):
        routes_to_test = (
            dict(url_path = "/blogs"pattern_name="home.views.blog_list"),

            dict(url_path="/blogs/my+wonderful+blog"pattern_name="home.views.blogs_show"kwargs={"slug""my+wonderful+blog"}),
            dict(url_path="/places/my%20wonderful+blog"pattern_name="home.views.blogs_show"kwargs={"slug""my%20wonderful+blog"}),

            dict(url_path="/blogs/my+wonderful+blog/"pattern_name="home.views.blogs_show"kwargs={"slug""my+wonderful+blog/"})
        )

        for stringOnestringTwo in test_paths(routes_to_test):
            self.assertEqual(stringOnestringTwo)

Here we have a list of routes to test and the attributes of each route: the url_path (what we would type into a browser address bar), the pattern_name (the name of the pattern / the pattern name we would use when creating our model’s get_absolute_url method, and lastly the kwargs we expect to be passed into our view by Django.

Implementing test_paths

test_paths ends up being quite simple – simple enough to put in a helper library!


from django.core.urlresolvers import reverseresolve

def test_paths(routes_to_test):
    for route in routes_to_test:
        path    = route["url_path"]
        pattern = route["pattern_name"]
        kwparams = route.get("kwargs")

        if kwparams:
            yield reverse(patternkwargs=kwparams), path
        else:
            yield reverse(pattern), path

        yield resolve(path).url_namepattern

Conclusion

Testing URLs in Django apps is simple with test_path!

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