October 28, 2012

Modern Cocoa Concurrency / Asynchronous Processing Patterns

Filed under: ResearchAndDevelopment — Ryan Wilcox @ 9:35 pm


In the last several years Apple has been pushing us Cocoa developers away from thread based concurrency. Thread based concurrency tends to be bug-ridden, ceremony filled, and just unpleasant code.

There have also been some changes in the wider world of development that have changed how we as developers thing about concurrency.

Today there are six different patterns to choose from: NSOperationQueue, callbacks, futures, subscribers, GCD, and making your async APIs synchronous anyway.

This is meant to me a world-wind tour/survey of the various techniques Cocoa developers use to solve the thorny problems of asynchronicity and/or concurrency.


A really nice Cocoa class for doing The Right Thing when given N tasks to perform. I like it with blocks.

It’s a simple API which means it’s great for quick things, but it also lacks power. But sometimes you don’t need power!

You can also limit the number of operations running at a time. For example to limit the number of concurrent downloads.


Imagine some code that looks like this:

[myObject makeANetworkRequestWithCompletionHandler: ^(id result, NSError* err) {

  NSLog(@"I am done");

A lot of network APIs/Frameworks for Cocoa look this this (cough, coughFacebookcough, cough).

Callbacks are fine when you can decouple time from your program. “Whenever I get this data that’s fine, it’s just background data anyway”. Except imagine if it’s a list of documents stored on some server somewhere – parts of your UI might want that information to display data in a table or a count.

Yes, in some cases you can use interface feedback to tell the user to wait… Certainly a more responsive UI is better. But if you’re waiting for data from the network in order to parse and make another request on the network, you end up with callback/block soup.


Getting an object now that I can check and get my result “later” is appealing to me.

The most promising is DeferredKit – it returns you a defered object which you can easily add or chain callbacks too.

RESTKit uses the future pattern and allows you to assign callback blocks to properties on the object you are creating. These blocks are then called as part of the RESTKit object callback chain-of-events. Example:

record.onDidLoadResponse = ^(RKResponse* response) {
  // ...

Mike Ash also has a Friday Q&A about Futures

Reactive (Subscribers) model

Github has a ReactiveCocoa framework that does a bunch of crazy allowing you to subscribe to event completions and event changes.

I don’t yet completely understand the framework or mindset behind this. However, when my projects require a more comprehensive, and unified approach to async or concurrency – and I have a week to spare to properly grok this framework – I’ll be looking into ReactiveCocoa.

Grand Central Dispatch

Grand Central Dispatch is Apple’s approach at C level concurrency. There’s a lot in GCD, and I usually prefer using NSOperationQueue or something higher in the stack, but sometimes you really want a low level tool.

Like today. I needed to make 25 HTTP requests to a server, parse them, and let some other part of the app know when these requests had been parsed.

Grand Central Dispatch has two tools I tried:

  1. dispatch_async(dispatch_get_main_queue(), ^{...});
  2. dispatch_group_async
  3. dispatch_semaphore


When given a task (the code in a block) it will run it at some point in the future. Coupled with dispatch_get_main_queue you’ll be able to run things on the main loop at some point in the future.

Wait, why would you want to do that? Answer? cough, coughFacebookcough, cough.


You can create a group of dispatched tasks using dispatch_group_create(), dispatch_group_async(). You can even wait for all the tasks in the queue to complete with dispatch_group_wait().


Apple also provides a cheap, reference counting semaphore. dispatch_semaphore_create, dispatch_semaphore_signal and dispatch_semafore_wait are the important methods here.

You can even Construct your own dispatch_sync out of these primitives

dispatch_group_wait(), dispatch_semaphore and the current thread

the *_wait methods have one disadvantage: they are blocking. So, use case here is to do something like:

dispatch_group_t group = dispatch_group_create();

    dispatch_queue_create("MINE", DISPATCH_QUEUE_SERIAL),
    ^ {
      NSLog(@"hello world");

dispatch_group_wait(group, DISPATCH_TIME_FOREVER);

Notice that dispatch_group_async above creates a new dispatch queue. This means that “hello world” will be printed out in some other thread. The current thread will halt, waiting for your dispatch to be complete, then it will print out “done”.

Now, this behavior is bad if you’re already on the context you are dispatching to. For example, imagine a function that is called on the main thread, like a button outlet.

- (IBOutlet) handleButton: (id) sender {
  dispatch_group_t group = dispatch_group_create();

  dispatch_group_async(group, dispatch_get_main_queue(), ^{

    NSLog(@"Hello world");

  dispatch_group_wait(group, DISPATCH_TIME_FOREVER);

This will actually cause a deadlock – you’ve told the main thread to sit there, waiting, until something finishes, but you’ve also scheduled something to happen on the main thread. Nothing will happen.

Apple’s documentation isn’t exactly explicit about this, and I had to prove this to myself with some experimentation and some stack overflow reading. However, all is not lost.

Synchronous APIs in an Async World

My main reason for doing this is interacting with Facebook. Facebook’s network APIs are cranky when they’re not on the main thread.

I also really want to avoid the ceremony that comes with asynchronous callback handling. Setting up something to process the data whenever it shows up, some kind of wait indicator for the users, and potentially confused users when they look at an unexpectedly blank table (because we haven’t gotten the data yet).

So, for very limited but very “save myself a lot of typing and re-architecting of this whole chunk of code” situations I actually want to stop the flow of code at the callsite. I don’t want to block a thread waiting for results (especially since I may need to execute GCD dispatches on this thread)… but I do want to defer execution of the next lines of code until the dispatch is complete.

I ended up implementing ASYNC_WAIT_ON_SAME_THREAD for exactly this purpose.


In order to wait for an operation to complete we’ll want to avoid using GDC semaphores or waiting mechanisms. I eventually came up with this implementation of ASYNC_WAIT_ON_SAME_THREAD

void ASYNC_WAIT_SAME_THREAD(dispatch_queue_t queue, dispatch_block_t users_block) {

    __block BOOL allDone = NO;

    dispatch_async(queue, ^{

        allDone = YES;

    while( !allDone ){
        // Allow the run loop to do some processing of the stream
        [[NSRunLoop currentRunLoop] runUntilDate:[NSDate dateWithTimeIntervalSinceNow:0.5]];

Yes, it polls for a result. It’s inelegant, but the best solution I could come up with given the constraints.


Although things are happening in the main thread (your dispatches are running) the UI might feel very unresponsive to the user if you have many small dispatches lined up.

In fact, if you have an operation that takes 1 second, the user will see that lag. They press a button, your code uses ASYNC_WAIT and the app just sits there for 1 second. So ASYNC_WAIT is not a panacea, but in certain cases the code advantages outway the UI disadvantages.

Consider use of ASYNC_WAIT a code smell. It’s not that use of it is bad, but it represents a potentially dangerous area of code.

Then again, code smells are sometimes OK. IN the C++ world we have reinterpret_cast which tells the compiler, “Trust me, I know that this bit of data is actually this thing”. Use of a few reinterpret_casts to get yourself out of hairy situations is fine, but not every nail should be screwed with that particular socket wrench.


I hope this survey of the concurrency / asynchronous design patterns in Cocoa has been useful. I look forward to more and more work being done in this area by the community.